Inter- and intraraterreliability when measuring an elbow joint with the electronic goniometer EasyAngle


Movements of the elbow joint are essential to be able to perform daily activities or in sports practice. Reliable and standardized measurement methods are therefore important to assess elbow joint mobility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intrarater reliability for elbow joint range of motions with the electronic goniometer EasyAngle.

Study Details

Authors – Higor Melquiades: University of Juiz de Fora

Year of study – 2018.


Standardized measurement methods were established. Measurements of active and passive movements of the joint range of motions for the elbow joint were performed by 3 raters (physiotherapists) with varying experience, for flexion, extension, pronation and supination. All measurements were performed twice with approximately 15 minutes between and included in total 21 healthy participants. Participants were recruited through convenience sampling. Exclusion criteria were: ongoing injury in the area, neurological disease that could affect mobility and be younger than 20 years or older than 69 years.


The intraclass correlation (ICC) values for interrater reliability varied between 0.72-0.95 which was classified as good to excellent. For intrarater reliability, ICC values varied between 0.54-0.94 for rater 1, 0.65-0.94 for rater 2 and 0.47-0.94 for rater 3, which was classified as acceptable to excellent.


The inter- and intrarater reliability of the EasyAngle when measuring elbow joint range of motions are considered acceptable to excellent. As our study is the first of its kind for the elbow joint, further research is required with participants from different study populations. More studies are also required that investigate the usefulness of standardization.

Link to study online: Thesis not published


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